African-American Medal of Honor Recipients WW2
The President of the United States in the name of the Congress takes pleasure in presenting the Medal of Honor To:
First Lieutenant Vernon J. Baker
Citation: For extraordinary heroism in action on 5 and 6 April 1945, near Viareggio, Italy. Then Second Lieutenant Baker demonstrated outstanding courage and leadership in destroying enemy installations, personnel and equipment during his company's attack against a strongly entrenched enemy in mountainous terrain. When his company was stopped by the concentration of fire from several machine gun emplacements, he crawled to one position and destroyed it, killing three Germans. Continuing forward, he attacked and enemy observation post and killed two occupants. With the aid of one of his men, Lieutenant Baker attacked two more machine gun nests, killing or wounding the four enemy soldiers occupying these positions. He then covered the evacuation of the wounded personnel of his company by occupying an exposed position and drawing the enemy's fire. On the following night Lieutenant Baker voluntarily led a battalion advance through enemy mine fields and heavy fire toward the division objective. Second Lieutenant Baker's fighting spirit and daring leadership were an inspiration to his men and exemplify the highest traditions of the Armed Forces.
Staff Sergeant Edward A. Carter, Jr.
Citation: For extraordinary heroism in action on 23 March 1945, near Speyer, Germany. When the tank on which he was riding received heavy bazooka and small arms fire, Sergeant Carter voluntarily attempted to lead a three-man group across an open field. Within a short time, two of his men were killed and the third seriously wounded. Continuing on alone, he was wounded five times and finally forced to take cover. As eight enemy riflemen attempted to capture him, Sergeant Carter killed six of them and captured the remaining two. He then crossed the field using as a shield his two prisoners from which he obtained valuable information concerning the disposition of enemy troops. Staff Sergeant Carter's extraordinary heroism was an inspiration to the officers and men of the Seventh Army Infantry Company Number 1 (Provisional) and exemplify the highest traditions of the Armed Forces.
First Lieutenant John R. Fox
Citation: For extraordinary heroism against an armed enemy in the vicinity of Sommocolonia, Italy on 26 December 1944, while serving as a member of Cannon Company, 366th Infantry Regiment, 92d Infantry Division. During the preceding few weeks, Lieutenant Fox served with the 598th Field Artillery Battalion as a forward observer. On Christmas night, enemy soldiers gradually infiltrated the town of Sommocolonia in civilian clothes, and by early morning the town was largely in hostile hands. Commencing with a heavy barrage of enemy artillery at 0400 hours on 26 December 1944, an organized attack by uniformed German units began. Being greatly outnumbered, most of the United States Infantry forces were forced to withdraw from the town, but Lieutenant Fox and some other members of his observer party voluntarily remained on the second floor of a house to direct defensive artillery fire. At 0800 hours, Lieutenant Fox reported that the Germans were in the streets and attacking in strength. He then called for defensive artillery fire to slow the enemy advance. As the Germans continued to press the attack towards the area that Lieutenant Fox occupied, he adjusted the artillery fire closer to his position. Finally he was warned that the next adjustment would bring the deadly artillery right on top of his position. After acknowledging the danger, Lieutenant Fox insisted that the last adjustment be fired as this was the only way to defeat the attacking soldiers. Later, when a counterattack retook the position from the Germans, Lieutenant Fox's body was found with the bodies of approximately 100 German soldiers. Lieutenant Fox's gallant and courageous actions, at the supreme sacrifice of his own life, contributed greatly to delaying the enemy advance until other infantry and artillery units could reorganize to repel the attack. His extraordinary valorous actions were in keeping with the most cherished traditions of military service, and reflect the utmost credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
Private First Class Willy F. James, Jr.
Citation: For extraordinary heroism in action on 7 April 1945 near Lippoldsberg, Germany. As lead scout during a maneuver to secure and expand a vital bridgehead, Private First Class James was the first to draw enemy fire. He was pinned down for over an hour, during which time he observed enemy positions in detail. Returning to his platoon, he assisted in working out a new plan of maneuver. He then led a squad in the assault, accurately designating targets as he advanced, until he was killed by enemy machine gun fire while going to the aid of his fatally wounded platoon leader. Private First Class James' fearless, self-assigned actions, coupled with his diligent devotion to duty exemplified the finest traditions of the Armed Forces.
Staff Sergeant Ruben Rivers
Citation: For extraordinary heroism in action during the 15-19 November 1944, toward Guebling, France. Though severely wounded in the leg, Sergeant Rivers refused medical treatment and evacuation, took command of another tank, and advanced with his company in Guebling the next day. Repeatedly refusing evacuation, Sergeant Rivers continued to direct his tank's fire at enemy positions through the morning of 19 November 1944. At dawn, Company A's tanks began to advance towards Bougaktroff, but were stopped by enemy fire. Sergeant Rivers, joined by another tank, opened fire on the enemy tanks, covering company A as they withdrew. While doing so, Sergeant River's tank was hit, killing him and wounding the crew. Staff Sergeant Rivers' fighting spirit and daring leadership were an inspiration to his unit and exemplify the highest traditions of military service.
Captain Charles L. Thomas
Citation: For extraordinary heroism in action on 14 December 1944, near Climbach, France. While riding in the lead vehicle of a task force organized to storm and capture the village of Climbach, France, then First Lieutenant Thomas's armored scout car was subjected to intense enemy artillery, self-propelled gun, and small arms fire. Although wounded by the initial burst of hostile fire, Lieutenant Thomas signaled the remainder of the column to halt and, despite the severity of his wounds, assisted the crew of the wrecked car in dismounting. Upon leaving the scant protection which the vehicle afforded, Lieutenant Thomas was again subjected to a hail of enemy fire which inflicted multiple gunshot wounds in his chest, legs, and left arm. Despite the intense pain caused by these wounds, Lieutenant Thomas ordered and directed the dispersion and emplacement of two antitank guns which in a few moments were promptly and effectively returning the enemy fire. Realizing that he could no longer remain in command of the platoon, he signaled to the platoon commander to join him. Lieutenant Thomas then thoroughly oriented him on enemy gun dispositions and the general situation. Only after he was certain that his junior officer was in full control of the situation did he permit himself to be evacuated. First Lieutenant Thomas' outstanding heroism were an inpiration to his men and exemplify the highest traditions of the Armed Forces.
Private George Watson
Citation: For extraordinary heroism in action on 8 March
1943. Private Watson was on board a ship which was attacked and hit by enemy bombers. When the ship was abandoned,
Private Watson, instead of seeking to save himself, remained in the water assisting several soldiers who could
not swim to reach the safety of the raft. This heroic action, which subsequently cost him his life, resulted in
the saving of several of his comrades. Weakened by his exertions, he was dragged down by the suction of the sinking
ship and was drowned. Private Watson's extraordinarily valorous actions, daring leadership, and self-sacrificing
devotion to his fellow-man exemplify the finest traditions of military service.
& 65th Regiments U.S. Colored Troops, with History & Soldiers' Names* Co-founders of Lincoln
Institute, later Lincoln University, Jefferson City, MO.
Preservation Issues, Black Missourians in the Civil War, Co-founders of Lincoln Institute, later Lincoln University, Jefferson City, MO.
The Battle of Glasgow- Includes 62nd Regiment USCT. Pictures, maps and references. Excellent
"Additional Notes on the Battle of Glasgow on October 15, 1864."
New research and maps; Excellent
Mid-Missouri Round Table- This Civil War historical Web site presents detailed documented accounts of military engagements, with pictures, maps, and references, plus a calendar of association events. Excellent Site.
Palmito Ranch, The Last Battle of the Civil War: A Gentleman's Agreement Broken*
COLUMBIA CEMETERY Columbia, Missouri- The Columbia Cemetary could be the only known cemetary in Missouri in which United States Colored Infantry, Civil War Veterans are buried. You will find 31 graves from the following regiments; 2nd, 3rd, 11th, 13th, 18th, 54th, 56th, 60th, 62nd, 65th, 67th, and the 68th. They are in very poor condition.
Civil War Medicine- Excellent
War of the Rebellion Journal Contents (1880 - 1901)- The War of the Rebellion is a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies published under the direction of the Secretary of War. It includes all official General & Regimental communications. Helps to know the theater of war, unit, month and year.
The United States Civil War Center-Thousands of links, including Native Americans
Civil War Soldiers & Sailors System
United States Army Military History Institute
The Louisiana Native Guards- Excellent Site
Black Civil War Soldiers of the Trans-Mississippi West
Union Army Regimental Histories
Cindi's List of African- American Sites
American Indians In The Civil War
Veteran Military Websites
Military & Pension Records for Union Civil War Veterans
Civil War Artillery Sites
Constitution of the United States-Biographies of the signing and nonsigning delegates to the Constitutional Convention, Bill of Rights, and much more. Excellent
THE OVERLAND TRAIL: An Official Millennium Trail. This site is very comprehensive in its analysis of the everyday aspects of living and traving in the West. Excellent
Dive and Discover- Join scientists as they dive to the mid-ocean ridge thousands of meters deep. Excellent
Travel thirty-eight states by motorhome, and experience their wonder and history through interactive experiences. Excellent
50 STATES.com -
Complete information on each State
Project Gutenberg - Download pre-1923 classic books from the start of this century and previous centuries, from authors like Shakespeare, Poe, Dante. Titles: Sherlock Holmes, Tarzan, Alice's adventures in Wonderland, and thousands of others. Excellent
Library of Congress American Memory Lessons, Grades 4-12
Hperhistory Timeline -
Click on the 3,000-year timeline to access relevant maps, biographies and profiles of people, places and events. Excellent
Blue Web'n- A Library of Blue Ribbon learning sites on the Web. Excellent
The Wild, Wild West- This site provides a multiplicity of "Excellent" links.
EduScapes -A Website for Life-Long Learners.
Websites and Resources For Teachers
Los Angeles County Schools- K-12 Lesson Plans
St.Johns K-12, Fl. SJCSD Black History Websites
Georgia Institute of Technology- K-12; Center for Education Integrating Science, Mathematics, and Computing
A major source for good books, recommended reading, and tons of rated websites!
Educational Resources Information Center ( Ask ERIC) and Other Clearinghouses
POETRY- You'll find everything here.
Federation of American Scientists- Includes video clips and much more. Excellent
NASA- Photo Gallery; Excellent
NASA- Ask the Hubble Space Telescope team a question. Excellent
National Geographic- Excellent
A WWW Vitural
People- Excellent site with excellent photographs.
Kathy Schrock's Guide for Educators
Historically Black Colleges and Universities
Native American Tribal Colleges & Universities
Hispanic Association of Colleges & Universities
Yaho0ligans-A Web guide for kids
Reach-it: A very useful site!
The American Veterinary Medical Association:
Animal health, safety, buying, pet loss, careers, kid's corner
Environmental Protection Agency-There is also a link for kids.
Shareware & Freebees
CSUS LIBRARY- Offers a multiplicty of services including, online applications for more than 1,700 undergraduate colleges, as well as graduate programs.
National Achievement Scholarship
The Minority On-Line
2001 Colleges, College Scholarships, and Financial Aid page
United Negro College Fund
The American Indian College Fund
The Paul & Daisy Soros Fellowships for New Americans
Hispanic Scholarship Fund
Afrigeneas Home Page
Amistad Research Center
American Historical Text Archive-This archive, housed at Mississippi State University, is international in scope.
U.S. Colored Troops -
Contains the names of over 230,000 soldiers of the USCT.
New Orleans Public Library
Pennsylvania Department: African-American genealogy
Kentucky Department for Libraries and
Archives -"Archival Reference Services", accepts certain written requests for genealogy searches.
Josephculligan.com Hundreds of sources
The Constitution of the United States: Full Text
Civil War Soldiers & Sailors System Name Search- I found my granfather by leaving out the Unit No. (or Ordinal) info.
National Archives and Records Administration
Genealogy & Soundex Locator
Ordering Pension & Military Records
Selected Civil War Photographs & Searchable Index
Library of Congress
The White House
American Memory Library
Web Directory-This site has everything on the topic from restrants to
National Weather Service Local & World
The Federal Population Censuses
U. S. Census Bureau
|BUFFALO SOLDIERS & INDIAN WARS* Topic Page Links.
101st Regt. United States Colored Infantry*
The Seminole Nation Indian Territory-
Colonel Allen Allensworth
Five Civilized Nations
Union Pacific Railroad-
Treaty Of Medicine Lodge*
Brevet Major General George Armstrong
Custer, Lieutenant Colonel
General Philip Sheridan
General William T. Sherman
Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 *
Chief Quanah Parker
Legendary Chiricahua, Chief Cochise
Major Reno's Account
Chief Crazy Horse's Monument
Lipan, 6th-8th grades- Excellent
Richard Henry Pratt- Controversial founder of Carlisle Indian Industrial School. Includes Hampton Insitute, the first non- Christian school accepting Native Americans. Excellent
Ryder Collection, 362 Color paintings & photos of Native American scenes, and artifacts, with archival data.- Click on all paintings and photos to enlarge. Smithsonian Institution; Excellent
MAPS: Geographical Information Systems- Explores Native American lands, history, artifacts, current places, and much more. Excellent
Twin Territories, Oklahoma-Indian Territory Project.
Legendary Indian Leaders Speak
American Indian Treaties, Law and Issues
This site provides up to the minute information on tribal issues currently in legislation.
The American Indian Page
Native American Resources
American Indians In The Civil War
The United States Civil War Center: Thousands of links, including Native Americans.
Bill's Aboriginal links-Provides a listing of international native sites. Excellent
Early Native Americans Texas Maps
The National Japanese -American Historical Society
katonk.com-Nisei, Military & Events
A History of the Japanese-American Internment
Chinese Culture Net
Chinese Language Information Page
Asian Studies WWW Virtual Library
The Center For Southeast
Asian Pacific American Medical Student Association
Fort Clark, Texas
Fort Concho, Texas
Fort Davis, Texas
Fort Davis, West Texas
Fort Gibson, Oklahoma
Fort Griffin, Texas
Fort Laramie, Wyoming
Fort Larned, Kansas
Fort McKavett, Texas
Fort Scott, Kansas
Fort Stockton, Texas
International Light Horse Cavalry
The 61 Cavalry- The only unmechanised mounted cavalry regiment in the world. The genesis of modern polo.
Strathcona Museum Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) Regimental Museum
Nintheenth Century British and Indian Armies- Very large
photographic and genealogical resource for 19th century British and Indian armies, soldiers, and
Anglo- Indians (India) families.
K Troop The New South Wales Lancers- Allies WW1&2
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