BUFFALO SOLDIERS & INDIAN WARS

 


Part 5
29 sec.

Part 1

 Victorio's War



Chief Victorio a.k.a.
Apache Wolf.
National Archives
Background Event: Chief Victorio also known as Apache Wolf, is considered one of the fiercest of the Apache. He and his Warm Springs Apaches left the hated San Carlos Reservation. He had done this twice before, but had returned. When moved to Fort Stanton, New Mexico he fled again, but this time he said, he would never return. Victorio reasoned that the arrival of the new judge and district attorney meant he would be tried for old murders and horse stealing. He and others also left, because government would not give them their promised food allotments, so they and their families were starving. Before Victorio's breakout, the heroic Ninth U.S. Cavalry had been given the distasteful task of returning Apaches who left their reservation. They also had to protect the Apaches on and off the reservation from cowboys and others who often hunted and killed Indians for sport. Some whites made a living by selling Indian scalps to the Mexican government who paid $50 for a male, $25 for a female and $10 for a child's scalp. At one time, the Apaches had been allowed to hunt under the protection of the military, but the settlers didn't like seeing armed Indians so the practice was discontinued. Colonel Hatch of the Ninth U.S. Cavalry, complained to General Sheridan that the Apaches were going to starve if they couldn't leave the reservation to hunt. Sheridan was not impressed with Hatch's letter.

September 4, 1879: Ojo Caliente, Arizona; As Victorio became more and more hate filled, he began to mutilate bodies. Soon after breaking out of the San Carlos Reservation, Victorio and the men struck at Captain Hooker and Company E of the Ninth stealing forty-six of their horses. In the aftermath, five Buffalo Soldiers lay dead with their bodies staked to the ground. They were Sergeant Silas Chapman, Privates Lafayerre Hoke, William Murphy, Silas Graddon and Alvrew Percival. Victorio and his band escaped.

September 10, 1879: By this time, nine settlers had been killed by Victorio's band and other groups of Apaches had joined in the fighting. All of the Ninth's Companies with Apache and Navaho scouts were in the field, always one step behind Victorio. Thousands of soldiers would continue this scenario for the next year, skirmishing Victorios' band over thousands of grueling miles, in the worst of conditions.

September 16, Black Range Mountains, New Mexico: Lieutenant Colonel Dudley with Captain Dawson's B Company and Hooker's E were ambushed and trapped by Vicrorio's warriors. They were rescued by Captain Beyer and Lieutenant Hugo of Companies C and G. After a day of fighting, the soldiers broke off the engagement. Five soldiers, three scouts and thirty-two horses lay dead after the bloody battle.

November 1879: The Candelaria Mountains, Mexico: Victorio and his warriors ambushed and killed fifteen Mexican citizens from the little village of Carrizal, who were looking for cattle thieves. Later, eleven more citizens were killed while searching for those what had not returned. The Mexican government telegraphed the U.S. commander in the area, to inform him that they were after Victorio, which would probably drive him back into Texas.

January 9-May 1880: Major Morrow, who had assumed command of operations in Southern New Mexico, sent the Buffalo Soldiers of the Ninth against Victorio's band many times during this period. In most of these cases, Victorio's war party fought off the soldiers. Sometimes the fighting ended quickly. At other times, it lasted for long hours.

May 1880: General Sheridan assigned Colonel Grierson's Tenth U.S. Cavalry to assist in the capture of Victorio. Instead of going into New Mexico, Colonel Grierson felt Victorio would come to Texas to raid. Grierson also decided to change his strategy in confronting Victorio. Instead of his men chasing Victorio across the desolate countryside, he would post them at the canyon passes and water holes he thought Victorio would use.

May 12, Bass Canon west of Fort Davis: Eight Mescalero warriors attacked a wagon train killing two settlers and wounding two. Captain Carpenter of the Tenth U.S. Cavalry with Company H pursued them to the Rio Grande. He was convinced they were on their way to join Victorio.

Last of the Seminole-
Negro Indian Scouts,
1913-1914. New York
Public Library *
July 1880 Eagle Springs, Texas: Lieutenant Henry Flipper was the first black officer in the U. S. military and the first to graduate from the West Point Military Academy. He was in charge of three troopers who rode 98 miles in twenty-one hours to inform Captain Gillmore that Victorio's advance guard had been spotted. This information was forwarded to Colonel Grierson who thought Victorio and his warriors would head for Eagle Springs. His men marched sixty-eight miles in twenty-four hours to arrive there ahead of Victorio's band. To their disappointment, Victorio had turned northwest, heading for Rattlesnake Springs. That same night, they marched sixty miles more to Rattlesnake Springs.

 

Battle of Rattlesnake Springs

 

August 6, 1880, Rattlesnake Springs, Texas: Captain Viele was placed in charge of Companies C and G of the Tenth as they waited for Victorio's approach. At mid-afternoon their long wait was rewarded. Slowly Victorio's warriors advanced unaware of the ambush. Seconds before the signal to fire was given, Victorio sensed the danger and halted his men. The troopers opened fire. The warriors swiftly withdrew out of range. Needing water and believing there were only a few soldiers, Victorio immediately attacked. Carpenter and B and H companies counter attacked, temporarily halting the Indians advance. Meanwhile, a strong unit of Victorio's band struck at the army wagons that were in route to the springs. They were beaten off, and soon rejoined Victorio's contingent. Victorio's warriors repeatedly charged the troopers to reach the water. Finally, in near darkness, one last attempt was made to reach the spring. It failed and Victorio fled with the troopers in furious pursuit. The chase ended without further bloody contact. With Colonel Grierson's strategy in place, all mountain passes and water holes were now covered by the troopers.

August 9th: Victorio's supply camp was discovered. His guards retreated, leaving twenty-five head of cattle, dried beef and pack animals.

August 11, 1880: The Buffalo Soldiers with Captains Carpenter and Nolon found Victorio and his warriors. In the heat of the thunderous chase, the horses in Carpenter's Company gave out, leaving Nolon's troopers to continue the chase. Victorio's warriors crossed the Rio Grande River into Mexico before Nolon's troopers could catch them. Victorio, like many times before, had escaped. Thus ends the "Battle of Rattlesnake Springs". Soon after Victorio's return to Mexico, its government gave the U.S. military, permission to cross into Mexico with the expressed intention of capturing Victorio dead or alive.

October 4, 1880: Ten companies of the Tenth U.S. Cavalry were placed inside Mexico at the Rio Grande to stop Victorio from returning into Texas. The Tenth and Colonel Jaoquin Terraza's Mexican forces located Victorio and his band. Five days later, the Mexican government informed the American forces their presence in Mexico was no longer needed. The Buffalo Soldiers left under protest. Colonel Grierson asked General Sheridan for permission to return to Mexico, permission was denied.

October 14, 1880: Tres Castillos Mountains, Mexico; Colonel Terrazas and his Mexican troops surrounded Victorio's camp and attacked. Before the morning was over Victorio, sixty warriors and eighteen women and children lay dead. Sixty-eight women and children were taken prisoner.

Death road with Victorio, as silently as a shadow, when he and his warriors returned toMexico. With Victorio's War at an end, the Trans-Pacos area was somewhat at peace. Colonel Grierson reported that during "Victorio's War", the Tenth U.S. Cavalry lost three troopers and saw three wounded. He also reported trooper Private Wesley Hardy as missing in action.

After completing this campaign, the Tenth was transferred to the Department of Arizona. They were engaged once again in a campaign against Apaches, who this time, was under the leadership of Chief Mangus and the Apache Kid. In September 1886 a detachment from the Tenth Cavalry captured Chief Mangus, the last of the warring Apache chiefs on the Arizona frontier.

Background Event: Chief Sitting Bull escapes to Canada. Crazy Horse surrenders, but is later murdered by a guard.

Ghost
Dancers,1890.
Museum of
New Mexico

Ghost Dance Shirt
: Believed to protect the wearer from bullets.


Ghost Dance: Illustrated & Pictorial with an analysis of content & intent of photographer.










 

Video, 25th Infantry returning from Cuba in the
Spanish American War,1898. Courtesy of Library of Congress. Real Player needed for viewing.



Personal Links*

Buffalo Soldiers

Civil War


62nd & 65th Regiments U.S. Colored Troops, with History & Soldiers' Names* Co-founders of Lincoln Institute, later Lincoln University, Jefferson City, MO.

Preservation Issues, vol. 4, no. 1 (Jan. - Feb. 1994)"> Preservation Issues, Black Missourians in the Civil War,Co-founders of Lincoln Institute, later Lincoln University, Jefferson City, MO.

The Battle of Glasgow- Includes 62nd Regiment USCT.

"Additional Notes on the Battle of Glasgow on October 15, 1864."

Missouri Civil War Museum- The museum mentions the creation of the 62nd U.S. Colored Troops, has interesting Civil War facts, Civil War terms, and photographs.

Palmito Ranch, The Last Battle of the Civil War: A Gentleman's Agreement Broken*

COLUMBIA CEMETERY Columbia, Missouri- The Columbia Cemetary could be the only known cemetary in Missouri in which United States Colored Infantry, Civil War Veterans are buried. You will find 31 graves from the following regiments; 2nd, 3rd, 11th, 13th, 18th, 54th, 56th, 60th, 62nd, 65th, 67th, and the 68th. They are in very poor condition.

Civil War Medicine- Excellent

War of the Rebellion Journal Contents (1880 - 1901)- The War of the Rebellion is a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies published under the direction of the Secretary of War. It includes all official General & Regimental communications.  Helps to know the theater of war, unit, month and year.

The United States Civil War Center-Thousands of links, including Native Americans

Civil War Soldiers & Sailors System

United States Army Military History Institute

The Louisiana Native Guards-

Black Civil War Soldiers of the Trans-Mississippi West

Union Army Regimental Histories


Cindi's List of African- American Sites

American Indians In The Civil War

Veteran Military Websites Pension Records for Union Civil War Veterans
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Civil War Artillery Sites

Educational

Constitution of the United States-
Biographies of the signing and nonsigning delegates to the Constitutional Convention, Bill of Rights, and much more. Excellent

THE OVERLAND TRAIL: An Official Millennium Trail. This site is very comprehensive in its analysis of the everyday aspects of living and traving in the West. Excellent

Dive and Discover-Join scientists as they dive to the mid-ocean ridge thousands of meters deep. Excellent

eCLASSROOM-
Travel thirty-eight states by motorhome, and experience their wonder and history through interactive experiences. Excellent

50 STATES.com -
Complete information on each State

Project Gutenberg - Download pre-1923 classic books from the start of this century and previous centuries, from authors like Shakespeare, Poe, Dante. Titles: Sherlock Holmes, Tarzan, Alice's adventures in Wonderland, and thousands of others. Excellent

Library of Congress American Memory Lessons, Grades 4-12

Hperhistory Timeline -
Click on the 3,000-year timeline to access relevant maps, biographies and profiles of people, places and events. Excellent

Blue Web'n- A Library of Blue Ribbon learning sites on the Web. Excellent

The Wild, Wild West This site provides a multiplicity of "Excellent" links.

EduScapes -A Website for Life-Long Learners.

Websites and Resources For Teachers

Los Angeles County Schools- K-12 Lesson Plans

VisionQuest

St.Johns K-12, Fl. SJCSD Black History Websites

Georgia Institute of Technology- K-12; Center for Education Integrating Science, Mathematics, and Computing

Davenport Public
LIbrary


Online-Learning-
Learning Disabilities


Brothers Judd
A major source for good books, recommended reading, and tons of rated websites!


Educational Resources Information Center ( Ask ERIC) and Other Clearinghouses

POETRY- You'll find everything here.

Federation of American Scientists-Includes video clips and much more. Excellent

NASA- Photo Gallery; Excellent

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National Geographic- Excellent

A WWW Vitural
International Aborigious
People
-
Excellent site with excellent photographs.

Kathy Schrock's Guide for Educators

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Hispanic Association of Colleges & Universities

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Smithsonian Institution

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Yaho0ligans-A Web guide for kids

Reach-it: A very useful site!

www.gmsp.org.

The American Veterinary Medical Association:
Animal health, safety, buying, pet loss, careers, kid's corner


Environmental Protection Agency-There is also a link for kids.

TeachersFirst

Search Engines-28*

Shareware & Freebees

Efortress


Scholarships

NAACP

CSUS LIBRARY- Offers a multiplicty of services including, online applications for more than 1,700 undergraduate colleges, as well as graduate programs.

National Achievement Scholarship

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Information Service
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2001 Colleges, College Scholarships, and Financial Aid page

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www.hsf.net

www.gatesfoundation.org.

Genealogy

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American Historical Text Archive
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U.S. Colored Troops -
Contains the names of over 230,000 soldiers of the USCT.

New Orleans Public Library

Pennsylvania Department: African-American genealogy

Kentucky Department for Libraries and
Archives -
"Archival Reference Services", accepts certain written requests for genealogy searches.

Josephculligan.com Hundreds of sources

Government

The Constitution of the United States: Full Text


Pro-Handgun Control

Anti-Handgun Control


Civil War Soldiers & Sailors System Name Search-
I found my granfather by leaving out the Unit No. (or Ordinal) info.

National Archives and Records Administration

Genealogy & Soundex Locator

Ordering Pension & Military Records

Selected Civil War Photographs & Searchable Index

Library of Congress

The White House 

American Memory Library

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Web Directory-
This site has everything on the topic from restrants to
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National Weather Service Local & World

The Federal Population Censuses

U. S. Census Bureau

David Schooley *
Major-Civil War (POW); Indian War-Captain of the 25th Infantry, Buffalo Soldier officer.

Cathay Williams, Female Buffalo Soldier * With Cowboy poem, biography, documents, photo, and an analysis of her efforts to gain her disability and pension allowances.

Indian War African-
Americans & Indian Scouts Medal of Honor Recipients *


Sgt. Henry Parker, Ex-slave, Civil War & Buffalo Soldiers:* Personal & military documents.

Lt. Henry O. Flipper; *
First African-American graduate of West Point Military Academy and a Buffalo Soldier officer.


Colonel Charles Young; Third African-American West Point Academy graduate, and a Buffalo Soldier officer. * Revised with military and family photos.

Sancho Mazique; A Buffalo Soldier Remembered. *

The Buffalo Soldiers
at Fort Huachuca: Parts 1 & 2.
Includes Colonel Charles Young.

USS Buffalo Soldier AK-9301*
Naval Vessel

Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts:* Revised with photos & links.

Discovering Archaeology:
The War for the Plains
Excellent

Indian War Medal of Honor Recipients-All

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Civil War Medal of Honor Recipients M-Z - Includes Dr. Mary E. Walker, only female recipient.

Civil War African-American Medal of Honor Recipients:*
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*

WW1 Medal of Honor Recipients


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Buffalo Soldiers & Indian Wars: Mini- Lesson Plan

Texas Parks & Wildlife: Community Outreach Project; Texas Buffalo Soldiers History. Excellent

Shadow Soldiers: Shadows in the range of light.

10th Cavalry, Buffalo Soldiers of Northern California.

Ninth & Tenth (Horse) Cavalry Association-The Greater Los Angeles Chapter of the Ninth & Tenth (Horse) Cavalry Association; An Official Army Unit Association.

African-American

The Emancipation Proclamation


Cavalry at Camp Lockett- San Diago Historical Society. History and photos of the soldiers and civilians set to defend the U. S. on its west coast. Excellent

Black Nurses in History: A bibliography and guide to Web resources.

Trenches on the Web-A major site on all aspects of " THE GREAT WAR". Explore all of the links. Discover Lt. James Reese Europe, famous leader of the 369th Infantry "Hell Fighters" band. Not a blood & gore site. Excellent

Black Cowboys

366th Infantry Regiment Veterans Association

The Tuskegee Airmen, George Washington Carver, Booker T. Washington. Excellent

African-Americans in Motion Pictures-
History, Movies, Actors, Directors, Festivals, Academy Awards and much more. Excellent Site

Black History Month- Exploring African-American History

EverythingBlack.com

A Deeper Shade of History- Look at interesting facts for this particular week in black history.

Prominent Figures In Black History Buried At Arlington National Cemetery.

African-American Newspapers and Other Printed Media- Publications across the United States.

Soul Of America History And Culture

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Women's Resources

Soviet Women Combat Pilots, WW11
-Excellent

Distinguished Women of Past and Present: Biographies of women writers, educators, scientists, heads of state, politicians, civil rights crusaders, artists, entertainers, and others.

WASP ON THE WEB: Women Airforce Service Pilots; A site dedicated to sharing the history of the Women Airforce Service Pilots of World War II, and shining a light on the inspirational stories of their lives before, during, and after WWII. Excellent

Infants & Children: Center and Disease Control

Adolescents and Teen Safety
: CDC

American Association of University Women


Women's Sports Foundation


Women's Business Center

National Science Foundation

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POETRY You'll find everything here.

Women Warriors in the 20th Century: International In Scope

Military Woman Home Page

Military

Send a free
MARSGRAM message
to and from personnel aboard certain ships and deployed forces

Dept. of Defense: National Women's Month


Federation of American Scientists- Includes video clips and much more. Excellent

The Army Historical Foundation- To preserve the heritage of the American soldier. Excellent

Military.com-
Excellent

Spy & Espionage Intelligence
Hundreds of sources

Veterans Organizations
and Support Groups

International in scope


Official Web site of the United States Army

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Official Web site of the United States Marines

Official Web site of the United States Air Force

MilMail Members Search

General United States Department of Defense Information
BUFFALO SOLDIERS & INDIAN WARS* Topic Page Links.

Page 1

101st Regt. United States Colored Infantry* 

Cherokees-

The Seminole Nation Indian Territory-

Colonel Allen Allensworth

Five Civilized Nations

Union Pacific Railroad-

Treaty Of Medicine Lodge*

Cheyenne-Arapaho-

Comanches

Kiowa Tribe

Brevet Major General George Armstrong
Custer, Lieutenant Colonel

General Philip Sheridan

General William T. Sherman

Page 2

Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 *

Chief Satanta

Chief Quanah Parker

Legendary Chiricahua, Chief Cochise

Page 4

Chief Gall

Little Bighorn

Major Reno's Account

Chief Crazy Horse's Monument

Lipan, 6th-8th grades- Excellent

Kickapoo Indians

Richard Henry Pratt- Controversial founder of Carlisle Indian Industrial School. Includes Hampton Insitute, the first non- Christian school accepting Native Americans. Excellent

Bibliography*

Native American

Smithsonian American Art Museum

MAPS: Geographical Information Systems- Explores Native American lands, history, artifacts, current places, and much more. Excellent

Twin Territories, Oklahoma-Indian Territory Project.

Legendary Indian Leaders Speak

Legislative Impact:
This site provides up to the minute information on tribal issues currently in legislation.


Native American Resources

American Indians In The Civil War

The United States Civil War Center: Thousands of links, including Native Americans.

Bill's Aboriginal links-Provides a listing of international Native American sites. Excellent

Early Native Americans Texas Maps

Japanese-Asian Americans

National Japanese American Historical Society


The 442nd Infantry Regiment

A History of the Japanese-American Internment

Chinese Culture Net

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Asian Studies WWW Virtual Library

The Center For Southeast

Asian Studies

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Forts

Fort Clark, Texas

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Fort McKavett, Texas

Fort Scott, Kansas

Fort Stockton, Texas

International Light Horse Cavalry

The 61 Cavalry- The only unmechanised mounted cavalry regiment in the world. The genesis of modern polo.

Strathcona Museum Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) Regimental Museum

Nintheenth Century British and Indian Armies- Very large
photographic and genealogical resource for 19th century British and Indian armies, soldiers, and
Anglo- Indians (India) families.

K Troop The New South Wales Lancers- Allies WW1&2





































































































































 



















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