Captain Richard Henry Pratt, 10th Cavalry Buffalo Soldiers,
Founder of the Carlisle School for Indian Students

His Motto, "Kill the Indian, save the man"

Captain Richard H. Pratt with Prisoners at Fort Marion in St. Augustine, Florida. Carlisle- www.

Lt. Policeman, Center Warrior, Rt. Captian Richard H. Pratt, Courtesy of

Girls Arriving at Pratt's Carlisle School for Indian
Courtesy of

In the year of 1874 the government decided to take decisive action against the Indians. The factors which influenced this decision were the extremely hostile attitudes of the Indians, the increase in raids, and the Adobe Walls and Lost Valley fights. The campaign put an end to the long bloody war that had been waged on the West Texas Frontier. Orders were given to five columns of soldiers to march from the north, south, east and west toward the Panhandle of Texas. The result of this campaign was the placement of the Indians on reservations.

"In 1875, Captain Richard Pratt escorted 72 Indian warriors suspected of murdering white settlers to Fort Marion in St. Augustine, Florida. Once there, Pratt began an ambitious experiment which involved teaching the Indians to read and write English, putting them in uniforms and drilling them like soldiers. "Kill the Indian and save the man," was Pratt's motto."

News of Pratt's experiment spread. With the blessing of Congress, Pratt expanded his program by establishing the Carlisle School for Indian Students to continue his "civilizing" mission. Although liberal policy for the times, Pratt's school was a form of cultural genocide. The schools continued into the '30s until administrators saw that the promised opportunities for Indian students would not materialize, theat they would not become "imitation whtie men." Native Americans who attended the schools help tell the story of a humanist experiment gone bad, and its consequences for a generation of Indians." Source: CSUS Cultural Diversity Center.

Pre-Carlisle School for Indian Students

Hampton University Heritage-1868

Santee Normal Training School-1870
Roster of Native American students at the Hampton Institute giving all personal and tribal information. (1878-1892)

In the White Man's Image

Richard H. Pratts' Carlisle Indian Industrial School History

Kiowas, Cheyennes, and Arapahoes Collections of Drawings & Art Works:
Includes James Mooney's "Silver Horn Kiowa Pictorial Calendar"

Tichkematse, A Cheyenne & Captain Richard Pratt with Indian Boys as Prisoners

Early Band, Carlisle School for
Students. Courtesy of

Pratt's Pupils in front of Pratt's
Quarters', Carlisle School for
Indian Students.
Courtesy of

President Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential
Center Selected Manuscripts From the
Collections,"Paper Trail"
Plains Indian Drawings by Carlisle Indain Prisoners-
Post- Carlisle School for Indian Students

Chemawa Indian School 1885
BIAs' List of Indian schools from 1871-1985
Fort Lewis Indian Boarding School 1891

Buffalo Soldiers Links

Cathay Williams Female Buffalo Soldier-With Documents
Indian War Medal of Honor Recipients
Ninth United States Cavalry

Sgt. Henry Parker, Ex-slave, Civil War & Buffalo Soldiers

Indian War African -
American & Indian Scouts Medal of Honor Recipients
Collections,"Paper Trail"
Tenth United States Cavalry
Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts
Spanish-American War
Medal of Honor Recipients
Twenty-fourth United
States Infantry

Colonel Charles Young,
third African-American
West Point Graduate

The Buffalo Soldiers at Fort Huachuca: Parts 1 & 2
Twenty-fifth United
States Infantry

National Trust for Historic Preservation: Native Americans and Archaeologists

Sancho Mazique,
A Buffalo Soldier Remembered
Ninth & Tenth (Horse) Cavalry Association
USS Buffalo Soldier AK-9301
Discovering Archaeology:
The War for the Plains

The Conquest of the West
The American West




Part 1

Part 2

Part 3

Part 4

Part 5

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