|Medal of Honor during|
The Medal of Honor, this nation's highest honor for valor, was awarded to four Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts. Buffalo Soldier Regimental returns, show that after twelve engagements and twenty expeditions, not one of their men was killed or seriously wounded in their seventeen-year history from 1868-1885. These young men of pure African or mixed black and Seminole ancestry, dressed, acted and possessed trailing, hunting and fighting skills like those of the plains Indians. Their number varied between thirty to fifty scouts. They were probably the best desert fighters and trackers the in the history of the United States Army.
The Florida Seminole Nation is one of the Five Civilized Nations. It held slaves, who
could do as they pleased, as long as they gave goods to the tribe. This also brought protection from slavers
and the military. They also accepted runaway slaves into their tribe. The Seminole Nation fought slavers, Indians
and the U.S. government to keep their ancestral lands and farms, which delayed the annexation of Florida. The United
States government invited their leaders Chief Coacoochee (Wild Cat) and Chief
Osceola, the great medicine man, to take part in peace talks under a flag of truce.
When the Seminole leaders arrived at the site of the negotiations they were promptly arrested. The Seminole
Nation was marched to Indian Territory on what is now known as the "Trail of Tears", where hundreds of
men, women and children were marched to their deaths.
The United States army had great difficulty in trying to control the ongoing hostile activities of the Comanche, Apache, and other plains Indians. The U.S. government invited the Seminole Negroes to return to the United States to serve as scouts. The Seminole Negroe's understanding of this Treaty was that the government would grant them land, pay their transportation costs to the U.S., pay them for their services and provide provisions for their families.
On the trail they were the best shots from the saddle, able to find water and food others missed, could pickup trails up to three weeks old and stay on a trail for months at a time. Unlike the soldiers, they could also live off of half rations indefinitely. Many of their, culprits, incorrectly, thought they had escaped from these scouts.
Medal of Honor
|The Last of the Seminole- Negro Indian|
|Courtesy New York|
Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts Medal of Honor Recipients
Pvt. Adam Paine, September 20, 1874. The Staked Plains, Texas. Sept. 26-27, 1874. Inducted: Fort Duncan, Texas. Born: Florida. Issued: Oct 13, 1875. Citation: Rendered invaluable service to Col. R. S. Mackenzie, 4th U.S. Cavalry., during this engagement.
Pvt. Pompey Factor, April 25,1875. Eagle's Nest Crossing, Pecos River, Texas. Issued March 15, 1875. Citation: With 3 other men, he participated in a charge against 25 hostiles while on a scouting patrol
Pvt. Isaac Payne, April 25, 1875. Eagle's Nest Crossing, Pecos River, Texas. April 25, 1875. Born: Mexico. Issued: May 25, 1875. Citation: With 3 other men, he participated in a charge against 25 hostiles while on a scouting patrol.
Sgt. John Ward, April 25,1875. Eagle's Nest Crossing, Pecos River, Texas. April 25, 1875. Entered service at. Fort Duncan, Tex. Born: Arkansas. Issued: May 28, 1875. Citation. With 3 other men, he participated in a charge against 25 hostiles while on a scouting patrol.
Edwin C. McReynolds. THE SEMINOLES. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1957.
Katz, William Loren. BLACK INDIANS: A Hidden Heritage. New York: Athenaeum, 1986.
Kevin Mulroy. FREEDOM ON THE BORDER: The Seminole Maroons in Florida, the Indian Territory, Coahuila and Texas Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 1993.
Miller, Donald. AN ALBUM OF BLACK AMERICANS IN THE ARMED FORCES. New York, NY.: Franklin Watts, 1969.
White, William Bruce. THE MILITARY AND THE MELTING POT: The American Army and Minority Groups,
1865-1924. University of Wisconsin: Thesis submitted to by William Bruce White 1968, University Microfilms
International, Ann Arbor Michigan, U.S.A., London England, 1978.
62nd & 65th Regiments U.S. Colored Troops, with History & Soldiers' Names* Co-founders of Lincoln Institute, later Lincoln University, Jefferson City, MO.
Preservation Issues, Black Missourians in the Civil War, Co-founders of Lincoln Institute, later Lincoln University, Jefferson City, MO.
The Battle of Glasgow- Includes 62nd Regiment USCT. Pictures, maps and references. Excellent
"Additional Notes on the Battle of Glasgow on October 15, 1864."
New research and maps; Excellent
Mid-Missouri Round Table- This Civil War historical Web site presents detailed documented accounts of military engagements, with pictures, maps, and references, plus a calendar of association events. Excellent Site.
Palmito Ranch, The Last Battle of the Civil War: A Gentleman's Agreement Broken*
COLUMBIA CEMETERY Columbia, Missouri- The Columbia Cemetary could be the only known cemetary in Missouri in which United States Colored Infantry, Civil War Veterans are buried. You will find 31 graves from the following regiments; 2nd, 3rd, 11th, 13th, 18th, 54th, 56th, 60th, 62nd, 65th, 67th, and the 68th. They are in very poor condition.
Civil War Medicine- Excellent
War of the Rebellion Journal Contents (1880 - 1901)- The War of the Rebellion is a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies published under the direction of the Secretary of War. It includes all official General & Regimental communications. Helps to know the theater of war, unit, month and year.
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Kathy Schrock's Guide for Educators
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Buffalo Soldiers & Indian Wars: Mini- Lesson Plan
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